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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(10), 301; doi:10.3390/ijgi6100301

Entropy-Based Fusion of Water Indices and DSM Derivatives for Automatic Water Surfaces Extraction and Flood Monitoring

1
School of Computer Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
2
Faculty of Science and Industrial Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus, Surat Thani 84000, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract

Reliable water surface extraction is essential for river delineation and flood monitoring. Obtaining such information from fine resolution satellite imagery has attracted much interest for geographic and remote sensing applications. However, those images are often expensive and difficult to acquire. This study proposes a more cost-effective technique, employing freely available Landsat images. Despite its extensive spectrum and robust discrimination capability, Landsat data are normally of medium spatial resolution and, as such, fail to delineate smaller hydrological features. Based on Multivariate Mutual Information (MMI), the Landsat images were fused with Digital Surface Model (DSM) on the spatial domain. Each coinciding pixel would then contain not only rich indices but also intricate topographic attributes, derived from its respective sources. The proposed data fusion ensures robust, precise, and observer-invariable extraction of water surfaces and their branching, while eliminating spurious details. Its merit was demonstrated by effective discrimination of flooded regions from natural rivers for flood monitoring. The assessments we completed suggest improved extraction compared to traditional methods. Compared with manual digitizing, this method also exhibited promising consistency. Extraction using Dempster–Shafer fusion provided a 91.81% F-measure, 93.09% precision, 90.74% recall, and 98.25% accuracy, while using Majority Voting fusion resulted in an 84.91% F-measure, 75.44% precision, 97.37% recall, and 97.21% accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: water surfaces extraction; flood monitoring; water indices; DSM; mutual information water surfaces extraction; flood monitoring; water indices; DSM; mutual information
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Horkaew, P.; Puttinaovarat, S. Entropy-Based Fusion of Water Indices and DSM Derivatives for Automatic Water Surfaces Extraction and Flood Monitoring. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 301.

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