ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 66-95; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010066
Article

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining

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Received: 28 November 2013; in revised form: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal GIS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR), coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS), has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big) Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques.
Keywords: LiDAR; MSS; mining; coastal; stamp sands
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kerfoot, W.C.; Hobmeier, M.M.; Yousef, F.; Green, S.A.; Regis, R.; Brooks, C.N.; Shuchman, R.; Anderson, J.; Reif, M. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3, 66-95.

AMA Style

Kerfoot WC, Hobmeier MM, Yousef F, Green SA, Regis R, Brooks CN, Shuchman R, Anderson J, Reif M. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2014; 3(1):66-95.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kerfoot, W. C.; Hobmeier, Martin M.; Yousef, Foad; Green, Sarah A.; Regis, Robert; Brooks, Colin N.; Shuchman, Robert; Anderson, Jamey; Reif, Molly. 2014. "Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining." ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 3, no. 1: 66-95.

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