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Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 29; doi:10.3390/biom7010029

Chemical and Conformational Diversity of Modified Nucleosides Affects tRNA Structure and Function

The RNA Institute, Departments of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA
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Academic Editor: Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection RNA Modifications)
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Abstract

RNAs are central to all gene expression through the control of protein synthesis. Four major nucleosides, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine, compose RNAs and provide sequence variation, but are limited in contributions to structural variation as well as distinct chemical properties. The ability of RNAs to play multiple roles in cellular metabolism is made possible by extensive variation in length, conformational dynamics, and the over 100 post-transcriptional modifications. There are several reviews of the biochemical pathways leading to RNA modification, but the physicochemical nature of modified nucleosides and how they facilitate RNA function is of keen interest, particularly with regard to the contributions of modified nucleosides. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are the most extensively modified RNAs. The diversity of modifications provide versatility to the chemical and structural environments. The added chemistry, conformation and dynamics of modified nucleosides occurring at the termini of stems in tRNA’s cloverleaf secondary structure affect the global three-dimensional conformation, produce unique recognition determinants for macromolecules to recognize tRNAs, and affect the accurate and efficient decoding ability of tRNAs. This review will discuss the impact of specific chemical moieties on the structure, stability, electrochemical properties, and function of tRNAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: tRNA modifications; physicochemical properties of RNA modifications; chemical biology of RNA modifications; RNA modified nucleoside contributions to function tRNA modifications; physicochemical properties of RNA modifications; chemical biology of RNA modifications; RNA modified nucleoside contributions to function
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Väre, V.Y.P.; Eruysal, E.R.; Narendran, A.; Sarachan, K.L.; Agris, P.F. Chemical and Conformational Diversity of Modified Nucleosides Affects tRNA Structure and Function. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 29.

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