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Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 17; doi:10.3390/biom7010017

Sulfur Modifications of the Wobble U34 in tRNAs and their Intracellular Localization in Eukaryotic Cells

1
Departments of Biochemistry, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-cho, Takatsuki Osaka 569-8686, Japan
2
Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue tRNA Modifications: Synthesis, Function and Beyond)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2716 KB, uploaded 18 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

The wobble uridine (U34) of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) for two-box codon recognition, i.e., tRNALysUUU, tRNAGluUUC, and tRNAGlnUUG, harbor a sulfur- (thio-) and a methyl-derivative structure at the second and fifth positions of U34, respectively. Both modifications are necessary to construct the proper anticodon loop structure and to enable them to exert their functions in translation. Thio-modification of U34 (s2U34) is found in both cytosolic tRNAs (cy-tRNAs) and mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Although l-cysteine desulfurase is required in both cases, subsequent sulfur transfer pathways to cy-tRNAs and mt-tRNAs are different due to their distinct intracellular locations. The s2U34 formation in cy-tRNAs involves a sulfur delivery system required for the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters and certain resultant Fe/S proteins. This review addresses presumed sulfur delivery pathways for the s2U34 formation in distinct intracellular locations, especially that for cy-tRNAs in comparison with that for mt-tRNAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: the wobble uridine (U34); thio-modification of U34 (s2U34); iron-sulfur (Fe/S); cluster; cytosolic tRNA (cy-tRNA); mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) the wobble uridine (U34); thio-modification of U34 (s2U34); iron-sulfur (Fe/S); cluster; cytosolic tRNA (cy-tRNA); mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nakai, Y.; Nakai, M.; Yano, T. Sulfur Modifications of the Wobble U34 in tRNAs and their Intracellular Localization in Eukaryotic Cells. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 17.

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