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Biomolecules 2015, 5(4), 2477-2503; doi:10.3390/biom5042477

Potential Role of the Gut/Liver/Lung Axis in Alcohol-Induced Tissue Pathology

1
Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology and the University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
2
Department of Medicine University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natalia Osna and Kusum Kharbanda
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Organ Alcohol-Related Damage: Mechanisms and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [592 KB, uploaded 30 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Both Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) and alcohol-related susceptibility to acute lung injury are estimated to account for the highest morbidity and mortality related to chronic alcohol abuse and, thus, represent a focus of intense investigation. In general, alcohol-induced derangements to both organs are considered to be independent and are often evaluated separately. However, the liver and lung share many general responses to damage, and specific responses to alcohol exposure. For example, both organs possess resident macrophages that play key roles in mediating the immune/inflammatory response. Additionally, alcohol-induced damage to both organs appears to involve oxidative stress that favors tissue injury. Another mechanism that appears to be shared between the organs is that inflammatory injury to both organs is enhanced by alcohol exposure. Lastly, altered extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition appears to be a key step in disease progression in both organs. Indeed, recent studies suggest that early subtle changes in the ECM may predispose the target organ to an inflammatory insult. The purpose of this chapter is to review the parallel mechanisms of liver and lung injury in response to alcohol consumption. This chapter will also explore the potential that these mechanisms are interdependent, as part of a gut-liver-lung axis. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; hepatic; pulmonary; inflammation; extracellular matrix ethanol; hepatic; pulmonary; inflammation; extracellular matrix
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Massey, V.L.; Beier, J.I.; Ritzenthaler, J.D.; Roman, J.; Arteel, G.E. Potential Role of the Gut/Liver/Lung Axis in Alcohol-Induced Tissue Pathology. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2477-2503.

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