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Biomolecules 2015, 5(4), 2223-2246; doi:10.3390/biom5042223

Impact of Alcohol on Glycemic Control and Insulin Action

1
Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
2
Department of Surgery, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nataolia Osna and Kusum Kharbanda
Received: 23 May 2015 / Revised: 24 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Organ Alcohol-Related Damage: Mechanisms and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [645 KB, uploaded 29 September 2015]

Abstract

Alcohol has profound effects on tissue and whole-body fuel metabolism which contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in individuals with alcohol use disorder. This review focuses on the glucose metabolic effects of alcohol, primarily in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue, under basal postabsorptive conditions and in response to insulin stimulation. While there is a relatively extensive literature in this area, results are often discordant and extrapolating between models and tissues is fraught with uncertainty. Comparisons between data generated in experimental cell and animals systems will be contrasted with that obtained from human subjects as often times results differ. Further, the nutritional status is also an important component of the sometimes divergent findings pertaining to the effects of alcohol on the regulation of insulin and glucose metabolism. This work is relevant as the contribution of alcohol intake to the development or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes remains ill-defined and a multi-systems approach is likely needed as both alcohol and diabetes affect multiple targets within the body. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; skeletal muscle; liver; insulin action; alcohol use disorder ethanol; skeletal muscle; liver; insulin action; alcohol use disorder
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Steiner, J.L.; Crowell, K.T.; Lang, C.H. Impact of Alcohol on Glycemic Control and Insulin Action. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2223-2246.

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