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Biomolecules 2015, 5(2), 702-723; doi:10.3390/biom5020702

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Formation of Extracellular Traps (ETs) in Humans

Biomedical Ultrastructure Research Group, Department of Cell Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg A-5020, Austria
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Academic Editors: Michael Breitenbach and Peter Eckl
Received: 21 November 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 4 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals)
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Abstract

Extracellular traps (ETs) are reticulate structures of extracellular DNA associated with antimicrobial molecules. Their formation by phagocytes (mainly by neutrophils: NETs) has been identified as an essential element of vertebrate innate immune defense. However, as ETs are also toxic to host cells and potent triggers of autoimmunity, their role between pathogen defense and human pathogenesis is ambiguous, and they contribute to a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since the discovery of ET formation (ETosis) a decade ago, evidence has accumulated that most reaction cascades leading to ET release involve ROS. An important new facet was added when it became apparent that ETosis might be directly linked to, or be a variant of, the autophagy cell death pathway. The present review analyzes the evidence to date on the interplay between ROS, autophagy and ETosis, and highlights and discusses several further aspects of the ROS-ET relationship that are incompletely understood. These aspects include the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS, the molecular requirements of NADPH oxidase-dependent ETosis, the roles of NADPH oxidase subtypes, extracellular ROS and of ROS from sources other than NADPH oxidase, and the present evidence for ROS-independent ETosis. We conclude that ROS interact with ETosis in a multidimensional manner, with influence on whether ETosis shows beneficial or detrimental effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutrophils; NETs; autophagy; NADPH oxidase; MAPK/ERK; inflammation neutrophils; NETs; autophagy; NADPH oxidase; MAPK/ERK; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stoiber, W.; Obermayer, A.; Steinbacher, P.; Krautgartner, W.-D. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Formation of Extracellular Traps (ETs) in Humans. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 702-723.

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