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Biomolecules 2015, 5(2), 1143-1150; doi:10.3390/biom5021143

Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

1
Department of Sport Science, Faculty for Sports Science and Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 6020, Austria
2
Hermann Buhl Institute for Hypoxia and Sleep Medicine Research, Bad Aibling 83043, Germany
3
Department Medicine, Division Sports Medicine, University Hospitals Ulm, Ulm 89081, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael Breitenbach and Peter Eckl
Received: 18 April 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [539 KB, uploaded 8 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators. View Full-Text
Keywords: white adipose tissue; adipocytes; hypoxia; oxidative stress; cell metabolism white adipose tissue; adipocytes; hypoxia; oxidative stress; cell metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Netzer, N.; Gatterer, H.; Faulhaber, M.; Burtscher, M.; Pramsohler, S.; Pesta, D. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1143-1150.

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