Next Article in Journal
Reconstructing Protein Structures by Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields and Iterative Decoy Set Construction
Next Article in Special Issue
Structure and Function of the Bi-Directional Bacterial Flagellar Motor
Previous Article in Journal
Microbial Enzymes: Tools for Biotechnological Processes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Long Noncoding RNAs in Imprinting and X Chromosome Inactivation
Biomolecules 2014, 4(1), 140-159; doi:10.3390/biom4010140

Analysis of Guanine Oxidation Products in Double-Stranded DNA and Proposed Guanine Oxidation Pathways in Single-Stranded, Double-Stranded or Quadruplex DNA

1,* , 2
1 Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193, Japan 2 Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus Update in Biomolecules)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [746 KB, uploaded 10 February 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Guanine is the most easily oxidized among the four DNA bases, and some guanine-rich sequences can form quadruplex structures. In a previous study using 6-mer DNA d(TGGGGT), which is the shortest oligomer capable of forming quadruplex structures, we demonstrated that guanine oxidation products of quadruplex DNA differ from those of single-stranded DNA. Therefore, the hotooxidation products of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) may also differ from that of quadruplex or single-stranded DNA, with the difference likely explaining the influence of DNA structures on guanine oxidation pathways. In this study, the guanine oxidation products of the dsDNA d(TGGGGT)/d(ACCCCA) were analyzed using HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). As a result, the oxidation products in this dsDNA were identified as 2,5-diamino-4H-imidazol-4-one (Iz), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG), dehydroguanidinohydantoin (Ghox), and guanidinohydantoin (Gh). The major oxidation products in dsDNA were consistent with a combination of each major oxidation product observed in single-stranded and quadruplex DNA. We previously reported that the kinds of the oxidation products in single-stranded or quadruplex DNA depend on the ease of deprotonation of the guanine radical cation (G•+) at the N1 proton. Similarly, this mechanism was also involved in dsDNA. Deprotonation in dsDNA is easier than in quadruplex DNA and more difficult in single-stranded DNA, which can explain the formation of the four oxidation products in dsDNA.
Keywords: DNA damage; electron transfer; photooxidation; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine DNA damage; electron transfer; photooxidation; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Morikawa, M.; Kino, K.; Oyoshi, T.; Suzuki, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Miyazawa, H. Analysis of Guanine Oxidation Products in Double-Stranded DNA and Proposed Guanine Oxidation Pathways in Single-Stranded, Double-Stranded or Quadruplex DNA. Biomolecules 2014, 4, 140-159.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics


Cited By

[Return to top]
Biomolecules EISSN 2218-273X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert