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Cell Penetrating Peptides in the Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals
Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China
Institut de Chimie Pharmaceutique Albert Lespagnol (Lille 2) (ICPAL), 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse 59006, France
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2012; in revised form: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 30 March 2012
Abstract: The cell membrane is a highly selective barrier. This limits the cellular uptake of molecules including DNA, oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins used as therapeutic agents. Different approaches have been employed to increase the membrane permeability and intracellular delivery of these therapeutic molecules. One such approach is the use of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs). CPPs represent a new and innovative concept, which bypasses the problem of bioavailability of drugs. The success of CPPs lies in their ability to unlock intracellular and even intranuclear targets for the delivery of agents ranging from peptides to antibodies and drug-loaded nanoparticles. This review highlights the development of cell penetrating peptides for cell-specific delivery strategies involving biomolecules that can be triggered spatially and temporally within a cell transport pathway by change in physiological conditions. The review also discusses conjugations of therapeutic agents to CPPs for enhanced intracellular delivery and bioavailability that are at the clinical stage of development.
Keywords: cell penetrating peptides; oligoarginines; carriers; drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style
Munyendo, W.L.; Lv, H.; Benza-Ingoula, H.; Baraza, L.D.; Zhou, J. Cell Penetrating Peptides in the Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals. Biomolecules 2012, 2, 187-202.
Munyendo WL, Lv H, Benza-Ingoula H, Baraza LD, Zhou J. Cell Penetrating Peptides in the Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals. Biomolecules. 2012; 2(2):187-202.
Munyendo, Were LL; Lv, Huixia; Benza-Ingoula, Habiba; Baraza, Lilechi D.; Zhou, Jianping. 2012. "Cell Penetrating Peptides in the Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals." Biomolecules 2, no. 2: 187-202.