Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joseph Reader
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Extreme ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y
) were observed in the electron beam ion trap of the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4 nm-20 nm. The electron beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV–6.0 keV to selectively produce different ionization stages. Fifty-nine spectral lines corresponding to n
= 0 transitions within the n
= 2 and n
= 3 shells have been identified using detailed collisional-radiative (CR) modeling of the non-Maxwellian plasma. The uncertainties of the wavelength determinations ranged between 0.0004 nm and 0.0020 nm. Li-like resonance lines, 2s
, and the Na-like D lines, 3s
, have been measured and compared with previous measurements and calculations. Forbidden magnetic dipole (M1) transitions were identified and analyzed for their potential applicability in plasma diagnostics using large-scale CR calculations including approximately 1.5 million transitions. Several line ratios were found to show strong dependence on electron density and, hence, may be implemented in the diagnostics of hot plasmas, in particular in fusion devices.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Silwal, R.; Takacs, E.; Dreiling, J.M.; Gillaspy, J.D.; Ralchenko, Y. Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium. Atoms 2017, 5, 30.
Silwal R, Takacs E, Dreiling JM, Gillaspy JD, Ralchenko Y. Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium. Atoms. 2017; 5(3):30.
Silwal, Roshani; Takacs, Endre; Dreiling, Joan M.; Gillaspy, John D.; Ralchenko, Yuri. 2017. "Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium." Atoms 5, no. 3: 30.
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