Atoms
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/atoms
Latest open access articles published in Atoms at http://www.mdpi.com/journal/atoms<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 2, Pages 86-122: Assessing Uncertainties of Theoretical Atomic Transition Probabilities with Monte Carlo Random Trials]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/2/2/86
This paper suggests a method of evaluation of uncertainties in calculated transition probabilities by randomly varying parameters of an atomic code and comparing the results. A control code has been written to randomly vary the input parameters with a normal statistical distribution around initial values with a certain standard deviation. For this particular implementation, Cowan’s suite of atomic codes (R.D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1981) was used to calculate radiative rates of magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole transitions within the ground configuration of titanium-like iron, Fe V. The Slater parameters used in the calculations were adjusted to fit experimental energy levels with Cowan’s least-squares fitting program, RCE. The standard deviations of the fitted parameters were used as input of the control code providing the distribution widths of random trials for these parameters. Propagation of errors through the matrix diagonalization and summation of basis state expansions leads to significant variations in the resulting transition rates. These variations vastly differ in their magnitude for different transitions, depending on their sensitivity to errors in parameters. With this method, the rate uncertainty can be individually assessed for each calculated transition.Atoms2014-04-1422Article10.3390/atoms2020086861222218-20042014-04-14doi: 10.3390/atoms2020086Alexander Kramida<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 2, Pages 15-85: Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities: An Experimenter’s View]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/2/1/15
The interpretation of atomic observations by theory and the testing of computational predictions by experiment are interactive processes. It is necessary to gain experience with “the other side” before claims of achievement can be validated and judged. The discussion covers some general problems in the field as well as many specific examples, mostly organized by isoelectronic sequence, of what level of accuracy recently has been reached or which atomic structure or level lifetime problem needs more attention.Atoms2014-03-1921Article10.3390/atoms201001515852218-20042014-03-19doi: 10.3390/atoms2010015Elmar Träbert<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 2, Pages 1-14: Evaluation and Comparison of the Configuration Interaction Calculations for Complex Atoms]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/2/1/1
Configuration interaction (CI) methods are the method of choice for the determination of wave functions for complex atomic systems from which a variety of atomic properties may be computed. When applied to highly ionized atoms, where few, if any, energy levels from observed wavelengths are available, the question arises as to how a calculation may be evaluated. Many different codes are available for such calculations. Agreement between the results from different codes in itself is not a check on accuracy, but may be due to a similarity in the computational procedures. This paper reviews basic theory, which, when applied in a systematic manner, can be the basis for the evaluation of accuracy. Results will be illustrated in the study of 4s24p5 (odd) and 4s24p44d (even) levels in W39+ and the transitions between them.Atoms2014-03-1921Article10.3390/atoms20100011142218-20042014-03-19doi: 10.3390/atoms2010001Charlotte Fischer<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 1, Pages 14-16: Notes on Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/1/3/14
Atomic structure and transition probabilities are fundamental physical data required in many fields of science and technology. Atomic physics codes are freely available to other community users to generate atomic data for their interest, but the quality of these data is rarely verified. This special issue addresses estimation of uncertainties in atomic structure and transition probability calculations, and discusses methods and strategies to assess and ensure the quality of theoretical atomic data.Atoms2013-08-0813Editorial10.3390/atoms103001414162218-20042013-08-08doi: 10.3390/atoms1030014Hyun-Kyung ChungPer JönssonAlexander Kramida<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 1, Pages 13: Special Issue on Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/1/2/13
There exist several codes in the atomic physics community to generate atomic structure and transition probabilities freely and readily distributed to researchers outside atomic physics community, in plasma, astrophysical or nuclear physics communities. Users take these atomic physics codes to generate the necessary atomic data or modify the codes for their own applications. However, there has been very little effort to validate and verify the data sets generated by non-expert users.Atoms2013-06-2112Editorial10.3390/atoms102001313132218-20042013-06-21doi: 10.3390/atoms1020013Per JönssonHyun-Kyung Chung<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 1, Pages 2-12: Emission of β+ Particles Via Internal Pair Production in the 0+ – 0+ Transition of 90Zr: Historical Background and Current Applications in Nuclear Medicine Imaging]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/1/1/2
90Y is traditionally considered as a pure β– emitter. However, the decay of this radionuclide has a minor branch to the 0+ first excited state of 90Zr at 1.76 MeV, that is followed by a β+/β– emission. This internal pair production has been largely studied in the past because it is generated by a rare electric monopole transition (E0) between the states 0+/0+ of 90Zr. The positronic emission has been recently exploited for nuclear medicine applications, i.e. positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions of 90Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, widely used as therapeutic agents in internal radiation therapy. To date, this topic is gaining increasing interest in the radiation dosimetry community, as the possibility of detecting β+ emissions from 90Y by PET scanners may pave the way for an accurate patient-specific dosimetry. This could lead to an explosion in scientific production in this field. In the present paper the historical background behind the study of the internal pair production of the 0+/0+ transition of 90Zr is presented along with most up to date measured branch ratio values. An overview of most recent studies that exploit β+ particles emitted from 90Y for PET acquisitions is also provided.Atoms2013-03-0811Review10.3390/atoms10100022122218-20042013-03-08doi: 10.3390/atoms1010002Marco D'Arienzo<![CDATA[Atoms, Vol. 1, Pages 1: Welcome to Atoms: A New Open Access Journal]]>
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-2004/1/1/1
There is no doubt that it is an exciting time to be studying quantum properties of atoms, molecules, and nuclei. Increasingly deep connections between long-established fields: “atomic physics”, “molecular physics”, “chemical physics”, “nuclear physics”, “scattering theory”, “nuclear magnetic resonance”, “quantum optics”, etc., are blurring old research labels. Atoms is a new open access journal with a broad scope that will aim to capture some of these exciting changes and developments, with a quantum flavor. The Editorial Board's collective expertise spans the fields involved and reflects the international communities active in these areas.Atoms2012-12-1711Editorial10.3390/atoms1010001112218-20042012-12-17doi: 10.3390/atoms1010001James Babb