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Metabolites 2017, 7(3), 33; doi:10.3390/metabo7030033

NMR Profiling of Metabolites in Larval and Juvenile Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) under Ambient and Low Salinity Conditions

5751 Murray Hall, School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Biochemistry Department, Husson University, 1 College Circle, Bangor, ME 04401, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Metabolomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1673 KB, uploaded 6 July 2017]   |  


Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress. Metabolite studies in species such as blue mussels can help improve our understanding of the species’ physiology, as well as their capacity to respond to environmental stress. We used 1D 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiments to describe baseline metabolite pools in larval (veliger and pediveliger stages) and juvenile blue mussels (gill, mantle, and adductor tissues) under ambient conditions and to quantify changes in the abundance of common osmolytes in these stages during low salinity exposure. We found evidence for stage- and tissue-specific differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of blue mussels, which reflect variation in the function and morphology of each larval stage or tissue type of juveniles. These differences impacted the utilization of osmolytes during low salinity exposure, likely stemming from innate physiological variation. This study highlights the importance of foundational metabolomic studies that include multiple tissue types and developmental stages to adequately evaluate organismal responses to stress and better place these findings in a broader physiological context. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue mussels (Mytilus edulis); NMR profiling; metabolomics; osmotic stress blue mussels (Mytilus edulis); NMR profiling; metabolomics; osmotic stress

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May, M.A.; Bishop, K.D.; Rawson, P.D. NMR Profiling of Metabolites in Larval and Juvenile Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) under Ambient and Low Salinity Conditions. Metabolites 2017, 7, 33.

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