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Metabolites 2017, 7(2), 27; doi:10.3390/metabo7020027

Furanoterpene Diversity and Variability in the Marine Sponge Spongia officinalis, from Untargeted LC–MS/MS Metabolomic Profiling to Furanolactam Derivatives

1
MCAM UMR 7245, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Sorbonne Universités, Paris 75005, France
2
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Sorbonne Universités, Paris 75005, France
3
Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie Marine et Continentale, CNRS UMR 7263, IRD 237, Aix-Marseille Université, Avignon Université, Marseille 13397, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Metabolomics)
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Abstract

The Mediterranean marine sponge Spongia officinalis has been reported as a rich source of secondary metabolites and also as a bioindicator of water quality given its capacity to concentrate trace metals. In this study, we evaluated the chemical diversity within 30 S. officinalis samples collected over three years at two sites differentially impacted by anthropogenic pollutants located near Marseille (South of France). Untargeted liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabolomic profiling (C18 LC, ESI-Q-TOF MS) combined with XCMS Online data processing and multivariate statistical analysis revealed 297 peaks assigned to at least 86 compounds. The spatio-temporal metabolite variability was mainly attributed to variations in relative content of furanoterpene derivatives. This family was further characterized through LC–MS/MS analyses in positive and negative ion modes combined with molecular networking, together with a comprehensive NMR study of isolated representatives such as demethylfurospongin-4 and furospongin-1. The MS/MS and NMR spectroscopic data led to the identification of a new furanosesterterpene, furofficin (2), as well as two derivatives with a glycinyl lactam moiety, spongialactam A (12a) and B (12b). This study illustrates the potential of untargeted LC–MS metabolomics and molecular networking to discover new natural compounds even in an extensively studied organism such as S. officinalis. It also highlights the effect of anthropogenic pollution on the chemical profiles within the sponge. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural products; furanoterpene; glycinyl lactam; LC MS/MS; NMR spectroscopy; metabolomics; molecular network; marine sponge; Spongia officinalis natural products; furanoterpene; glycinyl lactam; LC MS/MS; NMR spectroscopy; metabolomics; molecular network; marine sponge; Spongia officinalis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bauvais, C.; Bonneau, N.; Blond, A.; Pérez, T.; Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L.; Zirah, S. Furanoterpene Diversity and Variability in the Marine Sponge Spongia officinalis, from Untargeted LC–MS/MS Metabolomic Profiling to Furanolactam Derivatives. Metabolites 2017, 7, 27.

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