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Metabolomics for Secondary Metabolite Research
Metabolites 2013, 3(4), 1102-1117; doi:10.3390/metabo3041102
Article

Global LC/MS Metabolomics Profiling of Calcium Stressed and Immunosuppressant Drug Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1,2,3,* , 2
, 3
 and 2
Received: 15 October 2013; in revised form: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Metabolomics)
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Abstract: Previous studies have shown that calcium stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, challenged with immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and Cyclosporin A, responds with comprehensive gene expression changes and attenuation of the generalized calcium stress response. Here, we describe a global metabolomics workflow for investigating the utility of tracking corresponding phenotypic changes. This was achieved by efficiently analyzing relative abundance differences between intracellular metabolite pools from wild-type and calcium stressed cultures, with and without prior immunosuppressant drugs exposure. We used pathway database content from WikiPathways and YeastCyc to facilitate the projection of our metabolomics profiling results onto biological pathways. A key challenge was to increase the coverage of the detected metabolites. This was achieved by applying both reverse phase (RP) and aqueous normal phase (ANP) chromatographic separations, as well as electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources for detection in both ion polarities. Unsupervised principle component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA results revealed differentiation between wild-type controls, calcium stressed and immunosuppressant/calcium challenged cells. Untargeted data mining resulted in 247 differentially expressed, annotated metabolites, across at least one pair of conditions. A separate, targeted data mining strategy identified 187 differential, annotated metabolites. All annotated metabolites were subsequently mapped onto curated pathways from YeastCyc and WikiPathways for interactive pathway analysis and visualization. Dozens of pathways showed differential responses to stress conditions based on one or more matches to the list of annotated metabolites or to metabolites that had been identified further by MS/MS. The purine salvage, pantothenate and sulfur amino acid pathways were flagged as being enriched, which is consistent with previously published literature for transcriptomics analysis. Thus, broad discovery-based data mining combined with targeted pathway projections can be an important asset for rapidly distilling, testing and evaluating a large amount of information for further investigation.
Keywords: untargeted metabolomics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; yeast; calcium; calcineurin; FK506; Cyclosporin A; stress response untargeted metabolomics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; yeast; calcium; calcineurin; FK506; Cyclosporin A; stress response
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jenkins, S.; Fischer, S.M.; Chen, L.; Sana, T.R. Global LC/MS Metabolomics Profiling of Calcium Stressed and Immunosuppressant Drug Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metabolites 2013, 3, 1102-1117.

AMA Style

Jenkins S, Fischer SM, Chen L, Sana TR. Global LC/MS Metabolomics Profiling of Calcium Stressed and Immunosuppressant Drug Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metabolites. 2013; 3(4):1102-1117.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jenkins, Stefan; Fischer, Steven M.; Chen, Lily; Sana, Theodore R. 2013. "Global LC/MS Metabolomics Profiling of Calcium Stressed and Immunosuppressant Drug Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Metabolites 3, no. 4: 1102-1117.


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