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Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine
Department for Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Emil Fischer Center, Schuhstr. 19, Erlangen 91052, Germany
Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Giggenhauserstr. 35, Freising 85354, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 May 2013; in revised form: 24 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 7 August 2013
Abstract: Our previous study on the identification of common odorants and their conjugates in human urine demonstrated that this substance fraction is a little-understood but nonetheless a promising medium for analysis and diagnostics in this easily accessible physiological medium. Smell as an indicator for diseases, or volatile excretion in the course of dietary processes bares high potential for a series of physiological insights. Still, little is known today about the quantitative composition of odorous or volatile targets, as well as their non-volatile conjugates, both with regard to their common occurrence in urine of healthy subjects, as well as in that of individuals suffering from diseases or other physiological misbalancing. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to develop a highly sensitive and selective approach to determine the common quantitative composition of selected odorant markers in healthy human subjects, as well as their corresponding glucuronide conjugates. We used one- and two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution assays to quantify commonly occurring and potent odorants in human urine. The studies were carried out on both native urine and on urine that had been treated by glucuronidase assays, with analysis of the liberated odor-active compounds using the same techniques. Analytical data are discussed with regard to their potential translation as future diagnostic tool.
Keywords: metabolization; excretion; volatile; stable isotope dilution assay; two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; quantification; glucuronide; glucuronidase assay; biotransformation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wagenstaller, M.; Buettner, A. Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine. Metabolites 2013, 3, 637-657.
Wagenstaller M, Buettner A. Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine. Metabolites. 2013; 3(3):637-657.
Wagenstaller, Maria; Buettner, Andrea. 2013. "Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine." Metabolites 3, no. 3: 637-657.