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Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration
Departments of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202 , USA
Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
Departments of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2013; in revised form: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Abstract: High doses of acetaminophen (APAP) result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS) model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.
Keywords: acetaminophen; hepatic; β-oxidation; toxicity; acylcarnitine
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Bhattacharyya, S.; Pence, L.; Beger, R.; Chaudhuri, S.; McCullough, S.; Yan, K.; Simpson, P.; Hennings, L.; Hinson, J.; James, L. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration. Metabolites 2013, 3, 606-622.
Bhattacharyya S, Pence L, Beger R, Chaudhuri S, McCullough S, Yan K, Simpson P, Hennings L, Hinson J, James L. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration. Metabolites. 2013; 3(3):606-622.
Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Pence, Lisa; Beger, Richard; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra; Yan, Ke; Simpson, Pippa; Hennings, Leah; Hinson, Jack; James, Laura. 2013. "Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration." Metabolites 3, no. 3: 606-622.