Abstract: High doses of acetaminophen (APAP) result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS) model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.
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Bhattacharyya, S.; Pence, L.; Beger, R.; Chaudhuri, S.; McCullough, S.; Yan, K.; Simpson, P.; Hennings, L.; Hinson, J.; James, L. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration. Metabolites 2013, 3, 606-622.
Bhattacharyya S, Pence L, Beger R, Chaudhuri S, McCullough S, Yan K, Simpson P, Hennings L, Hinson J, James L. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration. Metabolites. 2013; 3(3):606-622.
Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Pence, Lisa; Beger, Richard; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra; Yan, Ke; Simpson, Pippa; Hennings, Leah; Hinson, Jack; James, Laura. 2013. "Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration." Metabolites 3, no. 3: 606-622.