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Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress
School of Natural System, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2013; in revised form: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Abstract: Cyanobacteria have two types of sunscreen pigments, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These secondary metabolites are thought to play multiple roles against several environmental stresses such as UV radiation and desiccation. Not only the large molar absorption coefficients of these sunscreen pigments, but also their antioxidative properties may be necessary for the protection of biological molecules against the oxidative damages induced by UV radiation. The antioxidant activity and vitrification property of these pigments are thought to be requisite for the desiccation and rehydration processes in anhydrobiotes. In this review, the multiple roles of photosynthetic pigments and sunscreen pigments on stress resistance, especially from the viewpoint of their structures, biosynthetic pathway, and in vitro studies of their antioxidant activity, will be discussed.
Keywords: anhydrobiosis; antioxidant; glycosylation; oxidative stress; photosynthetic pigment; sunscreen pigment; UV stress
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wada, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Matsugo, S. Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress. Metabolites 2013, 3, 463-483.
Wada N, Sakamoto T, Matsugo S. Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress. Metabolites. 2013; 3(2):463-483.
Wada, Naoki; Sakamoto, Toshio; Matsugo, Seiichi. 2013. "Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress." Metabolites 3, no. 2: 463-483.