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Metabolites 2013, 3(2), 463-483; doi:10.3390/metabo3020463
Review

Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress

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Received: 8 February 2013; in revised form: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism in Phototrophic Prokaryotes and Algae)
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Abstract: Cyanobacteria have two types of sunscreen pigments, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These secondary metabolites are thought to play multiple roles against several environmental stresses such as UV radiation and desiccation. Not only the large molar absorption coefficients of these sunscreen pigments, but also their antioxidative properties may be necessary for the protection of biological molecules against the oxidative damages induced by UV radiation. The antioxidant activity and vitrification property of these pigments are thought to be requisite for the desiccation and rehydration processes in anhydrobiotes. In this review, the multiple roles of photosynthetic pigments and sunscreen pigments on stress resistance, especially from the viewpoint of their structures, biosynthetic pathway, and in vitro studies of their antioxidant activity, will be discussed.
Keywords: anhydrobiosis; antioxidant; glycosylation; oxidative stress; photosynthetic pigment; sunscreen pigment; UV stress anhydrobiosis; antioxidant; glycosylation; oxidative stress; photosynthetic pigment; sunscreen pigment; UV stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wada, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Matsugo, S. Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress. Metabolites 2013, 3, 463-483.

AMA Style

Wada N, Sakamoto T, Matsugo S. Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress. Metabolites. 2013; 3(2):463-483.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wada, Naoki; Sakamoto, Toshio; Matsugo, Seiichi. 2013. "Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress." Metabolites 3, no. 2: 463-483.



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