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Metabolites 2012, 2(1), 39-56; doi:10.3390/metabo2010039

Comparative Chemistry of Aspergillus oryzae (RIB40) and A. flavus (NRRL 3357)

1
Department of Systems Biology, Center for Microbial Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads B221, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2
Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet B201, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2011 / Revised: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolites and Metabolism)
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Abstract

Aspergillus oryzae and A. flavus are important species in industrial biotechnology and food safety and have been some of the first aspergilli to be fully genome sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis has revealed 99.5% gene homology between the two species pointing towards a large coherence in the secondary metabolite production. In this study we report on the first comparison of secondary metabolite production between the full genome sequenced strains of A. oryzae (RIB40) and A. flavus (NRRL 3357). Surprisingly, the overall chemical profiles of the two strains were mostly very different across 15 growth conditions. Contrary to previous studies we found the aflatrem precursor 13-desoxypaxilline to be a major metabolite from A. oryzae under certain growth conditions. For the first time, we additionally report A. oryzae to produce parasiticolide A and two new analogues hereof, along with four new alkaloids related to the A. flavus metabolites ditryptophenalines and miyakamides. Generally the secondary metabolite capability of A. oryzae presents several novel end products likely to result from the domestication process from A. flavus.
Keywords: Aspergillus oryzae; (RIB40); Aspergillus flavus; (NRRL 3357); parasiticolide; ditryptoleucine; oryzamide Aspergillus oryzae; (RIB40); Aspergillus flavus; (NRRL 3357); parasiticolide; ditryptoleucine; oryzamide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rank, C.; Klejnstrup, M.L.; Petersen, L.M.; Kildgaard, S.; Frisvad, J.C.; Held Gotfredsen, C.; Ostenfeld Larsen, T. Comparative Chemistry of Aspergillus oryzae (RIB40) and A. flavus (NRRL 3357). Metabolites 2012, 2, 39-56.

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