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Metabolites 2012, 2(1), 100-133; doi:10.3390/metabo2010100

Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

Received: 1 November 2011 / Revised: 23 December 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolites and Metabolism)
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Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols.
Keywords: secondary metabolites; polyketides; polyketide synthases; gene clusters; biosynthesis; Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites; polyketides; polyketide synthases; gene clusters; biosynthesis; Aspergillus nidulans
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Klejnstrup, M.L.; Frandsen, R.J.N.; Holm, D.K.; Nielsen, M.T.; Mortensen, U.H.; Larsen, T.O.; Nielsen, J.B. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Metabolites 2012, 2, 100-133.

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