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Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans
Department of Systems Biology, Center for Microbial Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads B221, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Department of Systems Biology, Center for Microbial Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads B223, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2011; in revised form: 23 December 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
Abstract: Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols.
Keywords: secondary metabolites; polyketides; polyketide synthases; gene clusters; biosynthesis; Aspergillus nidulans
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Klejnstrup, M.L.; Frandsen, R.J.N.; Holm, D.K.; Nielsen, M.T.; Mortensen, U.H.; Larsen, T.O.; Nielsen, J.B. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Metabolites 2012, 2, 100-133.
Klejnstrup ML, Frandsen RJN, Holm DK, Nielsen MT, Mortensen UH, Larsen TO, Nielsen JB. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Metabolites. 2012; 2(1):100-133.
Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B. 2012. "Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans." Metabolites 2, no. 1: 100-133.