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Diseases 2016, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/diseases4010006

Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais 10, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 27 November 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
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Abstract

Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa flavonoids; colon cancer; in vitro and in vivo studies; molecular mechanism cocoa flavonoids; colon cancer; in vitro and in vivo studies; molecular mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Martín, M.A.; Goya, L.; Ramos, S. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer. Diseases 2016, 4, 6.

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