Diseases 2013, 1(1), 51-72; doi:10.3390/diseases1010051
Review

Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review

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Received: 20 June 2013; in revised form: 9 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract: The clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, either when called metabolic syndrome (MetS) or not, substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and causes mortality. One of the possible mechanisms for this clustering's adverse effect is an increase in arterial stiffness (AS), and in high central aortic blood pressure (CABP), which are significant and independent CVD risk factors. Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia) or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea) have been implicated too. We discuss the evidence connecting these cardio-metabolic risk factors, which negatively affect AS and finally increase CVD risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of possible lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on all these cardio-metabolic risk factors, in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; arterial stiffness; central aortic pressure; arterial hypertension; cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; chronic kidney disease; hyperuricaemia; non alcoholic fatty liver disease; obstructive sleep apnea
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Athyros, V.G.; Reklou, A.; Lazarides, A.; Mitsiou, E.; Karagiannis, A. Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review. Diseases 2013, 1, 51-72.

AMA Style

Athyros VG, Reklou A, Lazarides A, Mitsiou E, Karagiannis A. Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review. Diseases. 2013; 1(1):51-72.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Athyros, Vasilios G.; Reklou, Andromachi; Lazarides, Antonis; Mitsiou, Eudoxia; Karagiannis, Asterios. 2013. "Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review." Diseases 1, no. 1: 51-72.

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