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Electronics 2014, 3(2), 282-302; doi:10.3390/electronics3020282

Wearable Photoplethysmographic Sensors—Past and Present

Osaka Electro-Communication University, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering /18-8, Hatsu-Cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530, Japan
Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba/1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Electronics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [422 KB, uploaded 23 April 2014]   |  


Photoplethysmography (PPG) technology has been used to develop small, wearable, pulse rate sensors. These devices, consisting of infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors, offer a simple, reliable, low-cost means of monitoring the pulse rate noninvasively. Recent advances in optical technology have facilitated the use of high-intensity green LEDs for PPG, increasing the adoption of this measurement technique. In this review, we briefly present the history of PPG and recent developments in wearable pulse rate sensors with green LEDs. The application of wearable pulse rate monitors is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoplethysmography; pulse rate; reflectance; transmittance; green light; infrared light; adaptive filter; least mean square algorithm photoplethysmography; pulse rate; reflectance; transmittance; green light; infrared light; adaptive filter; least mean square algorithm

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tamura, T.; Maeda, Y.; Sekine, M.; Yoshida, M. Wearable Photoplethysmographic Sensors—Past and Present. Electronics 2014, 3, 282-302.

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