Next Article in Journal
Use of a Wireless Network of Accelerometers for Improved Measurement of Human Energy Expenditure
Next Article in Special Issue
Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT)-Based Sensors
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Effects of Different Electron-Phonon Couplings on the Spectral and Transport Properties of Small Molecule Single-Crystal Organic Semiconductors
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 190-204; doi:10.3390/electronics3010190

Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

1 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 2 IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2674 KB, uploaded 21 March 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible features, reduce the cost and further improve the performance of OLED devices, replacing the conventional indium tin oxide with better alternative transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) is a crucial step. In this review, we focus on the emerging alternative TCE materials for OLED applications, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metallic nanowires, conductive polymers and graphene. These materials are selected, because they have been applied as transparent electrodes for OLED devices and achieved reasonably good performance or even higher device performance than that of indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Various electrode modification techniques and their effects on the device performance are presented. The effects of new TCEs on light extraction, device performance and reliability are discussed. Highly flexible, stretchable and efficient OLED devices are achieved based on these alternative TCEs. These results are summarized for each material. The advantages and current challenges of these TCE materials are also identified.
Keywords: transparent electrode; organic light emitting diode; carbon nanotube; metallic nanowire; graphene; conductive polymer transparent electrode; organic light emitting diode; carbon nanotube; metallic nanowire; graphene; conductive polymer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Song, T.-B.; Li, N. Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes. Electronics 2014, 3, 190-204.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert