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Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/cosmetics5010001

Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods

Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied on large skin areas, even low penetration rates can cause a significant amount of sunscreen to enter the body. An ideal sunscreen should have a high substantivity and should neither penetrate the viable epidermis, the dermis and the systemic circulation, nor in hair follicle. The research of methods to assess the degree of penetration of solar filters into the skin is nowadays even more important than in the past, due to the widespread use of nanomaterials and the new discoveries in cosmetic formulation technology. In the present paper, different in vitro studies, published in the last five years, have been reviewed, in order to focus the attention on the different methodological approaches employed to effectively assess the skin permeation and retention of sunscreens. View Full-Text
Keywords: sunscreens; formulation; in vitro methods; cutaneous permeation; skin penetration sunscreens; formulation; in vitro methods; cutaneous permeation; skin penetration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tampucci, S.; Burgalassi, S.; Chetoni, P.; Monti, D. Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods. Cosmetics 2018, 5, 1.

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