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Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 28; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030028

Safety and Efficacy of Dextran-Rosmarinic Acid Conjugates as Innovative Polymeric Antioxidants in Skin Whitening: What Is the Evidence?

1
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
2
Macrofarm s.r.l., c/o Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutrition Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
3
Ro.el.mi. srl, Corso Europa 60, 20020 Solaro (MI), Italy
4
Farcoderm Srl Member of Complife Group, 27028 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract

Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and age spots. Therefore, the modulation of melanin synthesis represents a critical issue in medicine and cosmetology. In the present study, an innovative polymeric antioxidant to be used as skin whitening agent is developed by the conjugation of dextran with rosmarinic acid. Methods: Dextran-rosmarinic acid conjugates (DEX-RA) were synthesized in a one-pot method starting from Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract and dextran. The total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and bleaching tests, respectively. The efficacy of DEX-RA was evaluated by inhibition of tyrosinase activity, in vitro diffusion and stability studies and in vivo studies. The biocompatibility of the conjugates was investigated by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaoly]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and EPISKIN™ model. Results: Efficacy and safety studies confirmed the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and the biocompatibility of the synthesized conjugates. Conclusion: The polymeric conjugates, comparing to the free antioxidant, show a long-lasting efficacy combined to an enhanced stability resulting in an improved performance of the cosmetic formulations prepared using this innovative whitening agent as a bioactive ingredient. View Full-Text
Keywords: dextran; rosmarinic acid; polymeric conjugates; skin whitening agents; tyrosinase inhibition dextran; rosmarinic acid; polymeric conjugates; skin whitening agents; tyrosinase inhibition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parisi, O.I.; Malivindi, R.; Amone, F.; Ruffo, M.; Malanchin, R.; Carlomagno, F.; Piangiolino, C.; Nobile, V.; Pezzi, V.; Scrivano, L.; Puoci, F. Safety and Efficacy of Dextran-Rosmarinic Acid Conjugates as Innovative Polymeric Antioxidants in Skin Whitening: What Is the Evidence? Cosmetics 2017, 4, 28.

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