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Resources 2016, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/resources5010006

Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis

1
Biotechnology Unit, National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B. 5432, Idi-Ishin, Ibadan 200272, Nigeria
2
Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
3
Genetic Resources Unit, National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B. 5432, Idi-Ishin, Ibadan 200272, Nigeria
4
West Africa Center for Crop Improvement (WACCI), University of Ghana, Legon, Accra PMB 30 LG, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takayuki Hiraki
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
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Abstract

Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Amaranthus species are distributed worldwide with an interesting diversity of landraces and cultivars whose leaves and seeds are consumed. Despite their potential to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, grain amaranth breeding to improve nutritional quality and adoption by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. This study assessed the variation among 29 grain amaranth accessions using 27 phenotypic (10 morphological and 17 nutritional) characters and 16 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Multivariate analysis of phenotypic characters showed the first four principal components contributing 57.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded five groups at 87.5% similarity coefficient. RAPD primers generated a total of 193 amplicons with an average of 12.06 amplicons per primer, 81% of which were polymorphic. Genetic similarities based on Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.61 to 0.88. The RAPD-based unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram grouped the accessions into nine clusters, with the same species clustering together. RAPD primers distinguished the accessions more effectively than phenotypic markers. Accessions in the different clusters as obtained can be exploited for heterotic gain in desired nutritional traits. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amaranthus; plant genetic resources; RAPD; phenotypic variation; crop improvement; nutrition and food security Amaranthus; plant genetic resources; RAPD; phenotypic variation; crop improvement; nutrition and food security
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Akin-Idowu, P.E.; Gbadegesin, M.A.; Orkpeh, U.; Ibitoye, D.O.; Odunola, O.A. Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis. Resources 2016, 5, 6.

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