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Biology 2014, 3(3), 560-577; doi:10.3390/biology3030560

Regulated DNA Methylation and the Circadian Clock: Implications in Cancer

Department of Animal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08904, USA
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Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Methylation)
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Abstract

Since the cloning and discovery of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), there has been a growing interest in DNA methylation, its role as an epigenetic modification, how it is established and removed, along with the implications in development and disease. In recent years, it has become evident that dynamic DNA methylation accompanies the circadian clock and is found at clock genes in Neurospora, mice and cancer cells. The relationship among the circadian clock, cancer and DNA methylation at clock genes suggests a correlative indication that improper DNA methylation may influence clock gene expression, contributing to the etiology of cancer. The molecular mechanism underlying DNA methylation at clock loci is best studied in the filamentous fungi, Neurospora crassa, and recent data indicate a mechanism analogous to the RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) or RNAi-mediated facultative heterochromatin. Although it is still unclear, DNA methylation at clock genes may function as a terminal modification that serves to prevent the regulated removal of histone modifications. In this capacity, aberrant DNA methylation may serve as a readout of misregulated clock genes and not as the causative agent. This review explores the implications of DNA methylation at clock loci and describes what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying DNA methylation at circadian clock genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian clock; DNA methylation; facultative heterochromatin; cancer circadian clock; DNA methylation; facultative heterochromatin; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Joska, T.M.; Zaman, R.; Belden, W.J. Regulated DNA Methylation and the Circadian Clock: Implications in Cancer. Biology 2014, 3, 560-577.

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