Next Article in Journal
Endolithic Microbial Life in Extreme Cold Climate: Snow Is Required, but Perhaps Less Is More
Next Article in Special Issue
A Deeper Statistical Examination of Arrival Dates of Migratory Breeding Birds in Relation to Global Climate Change
Previous Article in Journal
Ecology of Subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica), Based on Metagenomic/Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Accretion Ice
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nonindigenous Plant Advantage in Native and Exotic Australian Grasses under Experimental Drought, Warming, and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment
Biology 2013, 2(2), 651-692; doi:10.3390/biology2020651

Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification

1,* , 1
1 School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury K12, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, Sydney, New South Wales 2751, Australia 2 Industry and Investment NSW, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre, Taylors Beach, New South Wales 2316, Australia 3 Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Hermann von Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres e. V. (HGF), Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven, 27570,Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 February 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Implications of Climate Change)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [422 KB, uploaded 2 April 2013]   |   Browse Figures


Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32−) concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds), purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems.
Keywords: mollusc; ocean acidification; elevated CO2; calcification; physiology; adults; early-life history mollusc; ocean acidification; elevated CO2; calcification; physiology; adults; early-life history
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Parker, L.M.; Ross, P.M.; O'Connor, W.A.; Pörtner, H.O.; Scanes, E.; Wright, J.M. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification. Biology 2013, 2, 651-692.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Biology EISSN 2079-7737 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert