Biology 2013, 2(2), 603-628; doi:10.3390/biology2020603
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Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

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Received: 4 February 2013; in revised form: 2 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polar Microbiology: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.
Keywords: sea ice; bacteria; extracellular polymeric substances; halophiles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ewert, M.; Deming, J.W. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses. Biology 2013, 2, 603-628.

AMA Style

Ewert M, Deming JW. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses. Biology. 2013; 2(2):603-628.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ewert, Marcela; Deming, Jody W. 2013. "Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses." Biology 2, no. 2: 603-628.

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