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Coatings 2018, 8(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8020079

Alkoxylated β-Naphthol as an Additive for Tin Plating from Chloride and Methane Sulfonic Acid Electrolytes

1
Hirtenberger Engineered Surfaces GmbH, Leobersdorfer Strasse 31-33, A-2552 Hirtenberg, Austria
2
Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Strasse 42, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Films and Patterned Structures by Electrochemical Methods)
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Abstract

β-naphthol was one of the first additives introduced for smooth and homogeneous tin electrodeposition. Although it can be oxidized under the plating conditions, forming either 1,2-napthoquinone or polymeric materials based on naphthioxides, it is still in use. In this work, an investigation of its more stable form, alkoxylated β-naphthol (ABN), on tin plating is undertaken. For this purpose, chloride based (pH ~5) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA, pH ~0.5) electrolytes, including ABN, were prepared. Reaction kinetics were studied by polarization, Tafel measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. Tin electrodeposits were obtained on flat brass substrates. Surface morphology and preferred crystal orientation were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In both studied electrolytes ABN acts as an inhibitor but in the case of the chloride electrolyte it is more pronounced. In the MSA electrolyte this effect was overlaid by the presence of tin-citrate complexes. In the chloride-based electrolyte, ABN has a grain refining effect, while in the MSA electrolyte an increase of ABN concentration leads to a slight enlargement of the average grain size. X-ray analysis shows a constant decrease of the (101) intensity with increasing concentration of ABN for the sample deposited from both baths. View Full-Text
Keywords: tin electrodeposition; alkoxylated β-naphthol; chloride; methane sulfonic acid; exchange current density; grain size tin electrodeposition; alkoxylated β-naphthol; chloride; methane sulfonic acid; exchange current density; grain size
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zajkoska, S.P.; Mulone, A.; Hansal, W.E.G.; Klement, U.; Mann, R.; Kautek, W. Alkoxylated β-Naphthol as an Additive for Tin Plating from Chloride and Methane Sulfonic Acid Electrolytes. Coatings 2018, 8, 79.

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