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Coatings 2013, 3(3), 140-152; doi:10.3390/coatings3030140

Electrochemical Synthesis of Nitro-Chitosan and Its Performance in Chromium Removal

1,* , 1
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, 314, Old Engineering Building, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA 2 Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, 255 Earth and Space Sciences Building, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
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A synthesized polymeric form of chitosan, electrochemically precipitated and photochemically modified, has been found to have significant value in removal of toxic chromate oxyanions from solution. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that a significant percentage of the amine functional groups were oxidized to nitro groups as a result of reactions with hydroxyl ions formed in the electrochemical process with additional oxidation occurring as a result of exposure to ultra-violet light. The adsorption capacity of the modified chitosan for chromate was investigated in a batch system by taking into account effects of initial concentration, pH of the solution and contact time. Nitro-chitosan showed greater adsorption capacity towards Cr (VI) than other forms of chitosan, with a maximum adsorption of 173 mg/g. It was found that pH 3 is the optimum for adsorption, a Langmuir model is the best fit for the adsorption isotherm, and the kinetics of reaction followed a pseudo second order function. Overall, our results indicate that electrochemical modification of chitosan is an effective method to enhance the reactivity of chitosan towards metals.
Keywords: chitosan; nitro-chitosan; electrochemical chitosan; nitro-chitosan; electrochemical
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Jha, P.K.; Halada, G.P.; McLennan, S.M. Electrochemical Synthesis of Nitro-Chitosan and Its Performance in Chromium Removal. Coatings 2013, 3, 140-152.

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