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Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 230-253; doi:10.3390/antibiotics4030230

Antimicrobial Use, Human Gut Microbiota and Clostridium difficile Colonization and Infection

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada
2
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yung-Fu Chang
Received: 1 May 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [800 KB, uploaded 3 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials have profound detrimental effects on the structure and diversity of the indigenous intestinal microbiota. These alterations often impair colonization resistance, allowing the establishment and proliferation of C. difficile in the gut. Studies involving animal models have begun to decipher the precise mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota mediates colonization resistance against C. difficile and numerous investigations have described gut microbiota alterations associated with C. difficile colonization or infection in human subjects. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective approach for the treatment of recurrent CDI that allows the restoration of a healthy intestinal ecosystem via infusion of fecal material from a healthy donor. The recovery of the intestinal microbiota after FMT has been examined in a few reports and work is being done to develop custom bacterial community preparations that could be used as a replacement for fecal material. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridium difficile infection; intestinal microbiota; antimicrobials; colonization resistance; fecal microbiota transplantation Clostridium difficile infection; intestinal microbiota; antimicrobials; colonization resistance; fecal microbiota transplantation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vincent, C.; Manges, A.R. Antimicrobial Use, Human Gut Microbiota and Clostridium difficile Colonization and Infection. Antibiotics 2015, 4, 230-253.

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