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Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 353-374; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030353
Article

Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia

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Received: 27 May 2014; in revised form: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Peptides)
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Abstract: Antibiotics exert several effects on host cells including regulation of immune components. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), e.g., cathelicidins and defensins display multiple functions in innate immunity. In colonic mucosa, cathelicidins are induced by butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotics on butyrate-induced expression of cathelicidins and beta-defensins in colon epithelial cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin and clindamycin reduce butyrate-induced transcription of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. Suppression of LL-37 peptide/protein by ciprofloxacin was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ciprofloxacin suppresses the rabbit cathelicidin CAP-18 in rectal epithelia of healthy and butyrate-treated Shigella-infected rabbits. Ciprofloxacin also down-regulated butyrate-induced transcription of the human beta-defensin-3 in HT-29 cells. Microarray analysis of HT-29 cells revealed upregulation by butyrate with subsequent down-regulation by ciprofloxacin of additional genes encoding immune factors. Dephosphorylation of histone H3, an epigenetic event provided a possible mechanism of the suppressive effect of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, LL-37 peptide inhibited Clostridium difficile growth in vitro. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin exert immunomodulatory function by down-regulating AMPs and other immune components in colonic epithelial cells. Suppression of AMPs may contribute to the overgrowth of C. difficile, causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
Keywords: antibiobic; microbiota; butyrate; histone modifications; host defense peptides; LL-37; innate immunity; impaired immune responses; Clostridium difficile; antibiotic-associated diarrhea antibiobic; microbiota; butyrate; histone modifications; host defense peptides; LL-37; innate immunity; impaired immune responses; Clostridium difficile; antibiotic-associated diarrhea
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarker, P.; Mily, A.; Mamun, A.A.; Jalal, S.; Bergman, P.; Raqib, R.; Gudmundsson, G.H.; Agerberth, B. Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia. Antibiotics 2014, 3, 353-374.

AMA Style

Sarker P, Mily A, Mamun AA, Jalal S, Bergman P, Raqib R, Gudmundsson GH, Agerberth B. Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia. Antibiotics. 2014; 3(3):353-374.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarker, Protim; Mily, Akhirunnesa; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Jalal, Shah; Bergman, Peter; Raqib, Rubhana; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Agerberth, Birgitta. 2014. "Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia." Antibiotics 3, no. 3: 353-374.


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