Antibiotics 2013, 2(3), 419-438; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2030419

Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics

School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2013; in revised form: 17 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
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Abstract: Since the production of the first pharmaceutically active molecules at the beginning of the 1900s, drug molecules and their metabolites have been observed in the environment in significant concentrations. In this review, the persistence of antibiotics in the environment and their associated effects on ecosystems, bacterial resistance and health effects will be examined. Solutions to these problems will also be discussed, including the pharmaceutical industries input, green chemistry, computer modeling and representative ionic liquid research.
Keywords: antibiotic; resistance; environment; ionic liquid; green chemistry; biodegradation; toxicity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jordan, A.; Gathergood, N. Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 419-438.

AMA Style

Jordan A, Gathergood N. Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(3):419-438.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jordan, Andrew; Gathergood, Nicholas. 2013. "Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics." Antibiotics 2, no. 3: 419-438.

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