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Antibiotics 2013, 2(3), 367-399; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2030367
Review

Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

1,* , 1
, 1
 and 2,3,*
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 24 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
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Abstract: Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.
Keywords: antibiotics; water reuse; antibiotic resistant bacteria; municipal wastewater; livestock manure; manure-applied soil antibiotics; water reuse; antibiotic resistant bacteria; municipal wastewater; livestock manure; manure-applied soil
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hong, P.-Y.; Al-Jassim, N.; Ansari, M.I.; Mackie, R.I. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 367-399.

AMA Style

Hong P-Y, Al-Jassim N, Ansari MI, Mackie RI. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(3):367-399.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd I.; Mackie, Roderick I. 2013. "Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes." Antibiotics 2, no. 3: 367-399.

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