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Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 237-255; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020237
Review

Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

 and *
Received: 4 February 2013; in revised form: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)
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Abstract: The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.
Keywords: phenotypic resistance; biofilm; persistence; bacterial permeability; antibiotic resistance; resistome phenotypic resistance; biofilm; persistence; bacterial permeability; antibiotic resistance; resistome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Corona, F.; Martinez, J.L. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 237-255.

AMA Style

Corona F, Martinez JL. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(2):237-255.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corona, Fernando; Martinez, Jose L. 2013. "Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics." Antibiotics 2, no. 2: 237-255.

Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert