Next Article in Journal
Role of Phenothiazines and Structurally Similar Compounds of Plant Origin in the Fight against Infections by Drug Resistant Bacteria
Next Article in Special Issue
An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters
Previous Article in Journal
Recent Advances in Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) Efflux Pump Inhibitors of Gram-Positive Bacteria S. aureus
Antibiotics 2013, 2(1), 46-57; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2010046
Article

Determination of the Presence of Three Antimicrobials in Surface Water Collected from Urban and Rural Areas

,
* ,
,
,
 and
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002, Lugo, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [399 KB, uploaded 7 February 2013]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Due to the continuous release of antimicrobials into the environment, the aim of this study was to compare the frequency of detection of sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine and trimethoprim in surface water collected from urban and rural areas in Northwestern Spain. A monitoring study was conducted with 314 river water samples analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that 37% of the samples contained residues of at least one of the investigated antimicrobials, and every sampling site yielded positive samples. At sites located near the discharge points of wastewater treatment plants and near the collection point of a drinking-water treatment plant, more than 6% of the samples were positive for the presence of antimicrobial residues.
Keywords: drug; residue; antimicrobial; LC-MS/MS; surface water; rural; urban drug; residue; antimicrobial; LC-MS/MS; surface water; rural; urban
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Iglesias, A.; Nebot, C.; Miranda, J.M.; Vázquez, B.I.; Abuín, C.M.F.; Cepeda, A. Determination of the Presence of Three Antimicrobials in Surface Water Collected from Urban and Rural Areas. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 46-57.

View more citation formats

Article Metrics

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert