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Biosensors 2017, 7(1), 11; doi:10.3390/bios7010011

State-of-the-Art Methods for Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Analysis in Athletes—The Need for Novel Non-Invasive Techniques

1
Department of Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, BEST Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
2
Faculty of Science, School of Sports and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
4
Animalia, Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Centre, Økern 0513, Oslo, Norway
5
Department of Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeff D. Newman
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 19 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract

Muscle glycogen levels have a profound impact on an athlete’s sporting performance, thus measurement is vital. Carbohydrate manipulation is a fundamental component in an athlete’s lifestyle and is a critical part of elite performance, since it can provide necessary training adaptations. This paper provides a critical review of the current invasive and non-invasive methods for measuring skeletal muscle glycogen levels. These include the gold standard muscle biopsy, histochemical analysis, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and musculoskeletal high frequency ultrasound, as well as pursuing future application of electromagnetic sensors in the pursuit of portable non-invasive quantification of muscle glycogen. This paper will be of interest to researchers who wish to understand the current and most appropriate techniques in measuring skeletal muscle glycogen. This will have applications both in the lab and in the field by improving the accuracy of research protocols and following the physiological adaptations to exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle glycogen; carbohydrates; muscle biopsy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; musculoskeletal ultrasound; electromagnetic sensors muscle glycogen; carbohydrates; muscle biopsy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; musculoskeletal ultrasound; electromagnetic sensors
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Greene, J.; Louis, J.; Korostynska, O.; Mason, A. State-of-the-Art Methods for Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Analysis in Athletes—The Need for Novel Non-Invasive Techniques. Biosensors 2017, 7, 11.

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