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Recent Advances in Fluorescent Arylboronic Acids for Glucose Sensing
Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Abstract: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is crucial in order to avoid complications caused by change in blood glucose for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The long-term consequences of high blood glucose levels include damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves and other organs, among others, caused by malign glycation of vital protein structures. Fluorescent monitors based on arylboronic acids are promising candidates for optical CGM, since arylboronic acids are capable of forming arylboronate esters with 1,2-cis-diols or 1,3-diols fast and reversibly, even in aqueous solution. These properties enable arylboronic acid dyes to provide immediate information of glucose concentrations. Thus, the replacement of the commonly applied semi-invasive and non-invasive techniques relying on glucose binding proteins, such as concanavalin A, or enzymes, such as glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase and hexokinases/glucokinases, might be possible. The recent progress in the development of fluorescent arylboronic acid dyes will be emphasized in this review.
Keywords: continuous glucose monitoring; arylboronic acids; fluorescence; selectivity; immobilization; diabetes mellitus
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hansen, J.S.; Christensen, J.B. Recent Advances in Fluorescent Arylboronic Acids for Glucose Sensing. Biosensors 2013, 3, 400-418.
Hansen JS, Christensen JB. Recent Advances in Fluorescent Arylboronic Acids for Glucose Sensing. Biosensors. 2013; 3(4):400-418.
Hansen, Jon S.; Christensen, Jørn B. 2013. "Recent Advances in Fluorescent Arylboronic Acids for Glucose Sensing." Biosensors 3, no. 4: 400-418.