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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(5), 95; doi:10.3390/nano7050095

One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada
2
National Research Council, National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive NW, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M9, Canada
These authors contributed equally.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shuangqiang Chen
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2981 KB, uploaded 29 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; ordered bulk heterojunctions; solution processing; light scattering; surface traps; electrochemical anodization; solvothermal synthesis; metal oxide; TiO2; ZnO photovoltaics; ordered bulk heterojunctions; solution processing; light scattering; surface traps; electrochemical anodization; solvothermal synthesis; metal oxide; TiO2; ZnO
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Thakur, U.K.; Kisslinger, R.; Shankar, K. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 95.

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