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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 59;

Chitosan-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Potential Immunoadjuvant

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianni Ciofani
Received: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Mediated Cell and Tissue Stimulation)
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The application of graphene oxide (GO) as a potential vaccine adjuvant has recently attracted considerable attention. However, appropriate surface functionalization of GO is crucial to improve its biocompatibility and enhance its adjuvant activity. In this study, we developed a simple method to prepare chitosan (CS)-functionalized GO (GO-CS) and further investigated its potential as a nanoadjuvant. Compared with GO, GO-CS possessed considerably smaller size, positive surface charge, and better thermal stability. The functionalization of GO with CS was effective in decreasing the non-specific protein adsorption and improving its biocompatibility. Furthermore, GO-CS significantly activated RAW264.7 cells and stimulated more cytokines for mediating cellular immune response, which was mainly due to the synergistic immunostimulatory effect of both GO and CS. GO-CS exhibits strong potential as a safe nanoadjuvant for vaccines and immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; chitosan; protein adsorption; cytokines; adjuvant graphene oxide; chitosan; protein adsorption; cytokines; adjuvant

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Yan, T.; Zhang, H.; Huang, D.; Feng, S.; Fujita, M.; Gao, X.-D. Chitosan-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Potential Immunoadjuvant. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 59.

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