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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 59; doi:10.3390/nano7030059

Chitosan-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Potential Immunoadjuvant

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
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Academic Editor: Gianni Ciofani
Received: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Mediated Cell and Tissue Stimulation)
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Abstract

The application of graphene oxide (GO) as a potential vaccine adjuvant has recently attracted considerable attention. However, appropriate surface functionalization of GO is crucial to improve its biocompatibility and enhance its adjuvant activity. In this study, we developed a simple method to prepare chitosan (CS)-functionalized GO (GO-CS) and further investigated its potential as a nanoadjuvant. Compared with GO, GO-CS possessed considerably smaller size, positive surface charge, and better thermal stability. The functionalization of GO with CS was effective in decreasing the non-specific protein adsorption and improving its biocompatibility. Furthermore, GO-CS significantly activated RAW264.7 cells and stimulated more cytokines for mediating cellular immune response, which was mainly due to the synergistic immunostimulatory effect of both GO and CS. GO-CS exhibits strong potential as a safe nanoadjuvant for vaccines and immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; chitosan; protein adsorption; cytokines; adjuvant graphene oxide; chitosan; protein adsorption; cytokines; adjuvant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yan, T.; Zhang, H.; Huang, D.; Feng, S.; Fujita, M.; Gao, X.-D. Chitosan-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Potential Immunoadjuvant. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 59.

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