Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 454-484; doi:10.3390/nano4020454
Review

Mechanisms Underlying Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of In Vitro Studies

1email, 2,3email, 1email and 2,3,* email
Received: 8 May 2014; in revised form: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials are emerging functional materials with technologically interesting properties and a wide range of promising applications, such as drug delivery devices, medical imaging and diagnostics, and various other industrial products. However, concerns have been expressed about the risks of such materials and whether they can cause adverse effects. Studies of the potential hazards of nanomaterials have been widely performed using cell models and a range of in vitro approaches. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive and critical literature overview on current in vitro toxicity test methods that have been applied to determine the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects induced by the nanostructures. The small size, surface charge, hydrophobicity and high adsorption capacity of nanomaterial allow for specific interactions within cell membrane and subcellular organelles, which in turn could lead to cytotoxicity through a range of different mechanisms. Finally, aggregating the given information on the relationships of nanomaterial cytotoxic responses with an understanding of its structure and physicochemical properties may promote the design of biologically safe nanostructures.
Keywords: in vitro methods; cytotoxicity; nanomaterials; cell culture; nanosafety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nogueira, D.R.; Mitjans, M.; Rolim, C.M.; Vinardell, M.P. Mechanisms Underlying Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of In Vitro Studies. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 454-484.

AMA Style

Nogueira DR, Mitjans M, Rolim CM, Vinardell MP. Mechanisms Underlying Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of In Vitro Studies. Nanomaterials. 2014; 4(2):454-484.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nogueira, Daniele R.; Mitjans, Montserrat; Rolim, Clarice M.; Vinardell, M. P. 2014. "Mechanisms Underlying Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of In Vitro Studies." Nanomaterials 4, no. 2: 454-484.

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