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J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8030030

A Cell-Adhesive Plasma Polymerized Allylamine Coating Reduces the In Vivo Inflammatory Response Induced by Ti6Al4V Modified with Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of Copper

1
Research Group of Predictive Diagnostics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University Medical Center Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany
2
Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany
3
Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), 17489 Greifswald, Germany
4
Institute of Marine Biotechnology, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
5
Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Center Rostock, 18057 Rostock, Germany
6
Department of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hospital Hygiene, University Medical Center Rostock, 18057 Rostock, Germany
7
Department of Cell Biology, University Medical Center Rostock, 18057 Rostock, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film (PPAAm). Thus, this study aimed to examine in vivo local inflammatory reactions for Ti6Al4V implants treated with Cu-PIII (Ti-Cu), alone or with an additional PPAAm film (Ti-Cu-PPAAm), compared to untreated implants (Ti). Successful Cu-PIII and PPAAm treatment was confirmed with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Storage of Ti-Cu and Ti-Cu-PPAAm samples in double-distilled water for five days revealed a reduction of Cu release by PPAAm. Subsequently, Ti, Ti-Cu and Ti-Cu-PPAAm samples were simultaneously implanted into the neck musculature of 24 rats. After 7, 14 and 56 days, peri-implant tissue was retrieved from 8 rats/day for morphometric immunohistochemistry of different inflammatory cells. On day 56, Ti-Cu induced significantly stronger reactions compared to Ti (tissue macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, T lymphocytes) and to Ti-Cu-PPAAm (tissue macrophages, T lymphocytes, mast cells). The response for Ti-Cu-PPAAm was comparable with Ti. In conclusion, PPAAm reduced the inflammatory reactions caused by Cu-PIII. Combining both plasma processes could be useful to create antibacterial and tissue compatible Ti-based implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; copper; antibacterial properties; plasma polymerization; plasma immersion ion implantation; biocompatibility; morphometry; inflammatory response titanium; copper; antibacterial properties; plasma polymerization; plasma immersion ion implantation; biocompatibility; morphometry; inflammatory response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Walschus, U.; Hoene, A.; Patrzyk, M.; Lucke, S.; Finke, B.; Polak, M.; Lukowski, G.; Bader, R.; Zietz, C.; Podbielski, A.; Nebe, J.B.; Schlosser, M. A Cell-Adhesive Plasma Polymerized Allylamine Coating Reduces the In Vivo Inflammatory Response Induced by Ti6Al4V Modified with Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of Copper. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 30.

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