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The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Biological Systems: Implications for Human Health and Performance
School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, 63 Wallace Street, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry, B3-088H CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, USA
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Shimogamo Hangi-cho 1-5, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan
Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, Spielmannstr. 7, Braunschweig D-38106, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2013; in revised form: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Abstract: Titanium is biocompatible and widely utilized in a variety of applications. Recently, titanium in pico-nanometer scale and soluble form (Aqua Titan) has expanded its use to applied human health and performance. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence associated with specific physiological responses to Aqua Titan-treated materials. In vitro studies have shown that application of Aqua Titan can modify membrane potential and long-term potentiation in isolated hippocampal neurons, suggesting reduced pain memory as a possible mechanism for reported analgesia. Proximal contact with Aqua Titan-treated titanium increased gene expression, protein synthesis, cell growth and adhesion in normal cultured muscle and bone cells, suggesting application for Aqua Titan in clinical implant procedures and wound healing. Evidence for beneficial effects on neuromuscular control of muscle-tendon function and improvements in running economy in human athletes was seen when Aqua Titan-treated tape was applied to the human triceps surae following fatigue induced by prior strenuous exercise. Finally, behavioral responses and effects on the autonomic nervous system to environmental exposure suggest Aqua Titan may promote a mild relaxant, or stress-suppressive response. Together, data suggest exposure to Aqua Titan-treated materials modulates aspects of growth and function in neuronal and other musculoskeletal cells with possible benefits to musculotendinous recovery from exercise and to the systemic response to stress.
Keywords: Aqua Titan; action potential; long-term potentiation; tendon compliance; musculotendinous function; cell adhesion and growth; autonomic nervous system; pico-nanometer scale
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Rowlands, D.S.; Shultz, S.P.; Ogawa, T.; Aoi, W.; Korte, M. The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Biological Systems: Implications for Human Health and Performance. J. Funct. Biomater. 2014, 5, 1-14.
Rowlands DS, Shultz SP, Ogawa T, Aoi W, Korte M. The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Biological Systems: Implications for Human Health and Performance. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2014; 5(1):1-14.
Rowlands, David S.; Shultz, Sarah P.; Ogawa, Takahiro; Aoi, Wataru; Korte, Martin. 2014. "The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Biological Systems: Implications for Human Health and Performance." J. Funct. Biomater. 5, no. 1: 1-14.