J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(4), 209-311; doi:10.3390/jfb4040209

Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

Received: 10 September 2013; in revised form: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided.
Keywords: calcium orthophosphates; hydroxyapatite; self-setting; self-hardening; cements; concretes; bioceramics; bone grafts; scaffolds; tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dorozhkin, S.V. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations. J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4, 209-311.

AMA Style

Dorozhkin SV. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2013; 4(4):209-311.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dorozhkin, Sergey V. 2013. "Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations." J. Funct. Biomater. 4, no. 4: 209-311.

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