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J. Intell. 2015, 3(4), 121-136; doi:10.3390/jintelligence3040121

John Carroll’s Views on Intelligence: Bi-Factor vs. Higher-Order Models

Educational Psychology Department, Baylor University, One Bear Place #97301, Waco, TX 76798, USA
Academic Editor: Paul De Boeck
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 2 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
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Abstract

The development of factor models is inextricably tied to the history of intelligence research. One of the most commonly-cited scholars in the field is John Carroll, whose three-stratum theory of cognitive ability has been one of the most influential models of cognitive ability in the past 20 years. Nonetheless, there is disagreement about how Carroll conceptualized the factors in his model. Some argue that his model is best represented through a higher-order model, while others argue that a bi-factor model is a better representation. Carroll was explicit about what he perceived the best way to represent his model, but his writings are not always easy to understand. In this article, I clarify his position by first describing the details and implications of bi-factor and higher-order models then show that Carroll’s published views are better represented by a bi-factor model. View Full-Text
Keywords: bi-factor model; higher-order model; John Carroll; general intelligence bi-factor model; higher-order model; John Carroll; general intelligence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Beaujean, A.A. John Carroll’s Views on Intelligence: Bi-Factor vs. Higher-Order Models. J. Intell. 2015, 3, 121-136.

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