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Computation 2016, 4(3), 23; doi:10.3390/computation4030023

Orbital Energy-Based Reaction Analysis of SN2 Reactions

1
Fuel Cell Nanomaterials Center, University of Yamanashi, Kofu 400-0021, Japan
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karlheinz Schwarz and Agnes Nagy
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
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Abstract

An orbital energy-based reaction analysis theory is presented as an extension of the orbital-based conceptual density functional theory. In the orbital energy-based theory, the orbitals contributing to reactions are interpreted to be valence orbitals giving the largest orbital energy variation from reactants to products. Reactions are taken to be electron transfer-driven when they provide small variations for the gaps between the contributing occupied and unoccupied orbital energies on the intrinsic reaction coordinates in the initial processes. The orbital energy-based theory is then applied to the calculations of several S N2 reactions. Using a reaction path search method, the Cl + CH3I → ClCH3 + I reaction, for which another reaction path called “roundabout path” is proposed, is found to have a precursor process similar to the roundabout path just before this SN2 reaction process. The orbital energy-based theory indicates that this precursor process is obviously driven by structural change, while the successor SN2 reaction proceeds through electron transfer between the contributing orbitals. Comparing the calculated results of the SN2 reactions in gas phase and in aqueous solution shows that the contributing orbitals significantly depend on solvent effects and these orbitals can be correctly determined by this theory. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical reaction analysis; orbital energy; long-range correction; SN2 reactions; reaction path search chemical reaction analysis; orbital energy; long-range correction; SN2 reactions; reaction path search
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsuneda, T.; Maeda, S.; Harabuchi, Y.; Singh, R.K. Orbital Energy-Based Reaction Analysis of SN2 Reactions. Computation 2016, 4, 23.

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