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Information 2015, 6(3), 522-535;

Travel Mode Detection Based on Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization

Antai College of Economics & Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200052, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Baozhen Yao and Yudong Zhang
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Swarm Information Acquisition and Swarm Intelligence in Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [750 KB, uploaded 21 August 2015]   |  


The collection of massive Global Positioning System (GPS) data from travel surveys has increased exponentially worldwide since the 1990s. A number of methods, which range from rule-based to advanced classification approaches, have been applied to detect travel modes from GPS positioning data collected in travel surveys based on GPS-enabled smartphones or dedicated GPS devices. Among these approaches, neural networks (NNs) are widely adopted because they can extract subtle information from training data that cannot be directly obtained by human or other analysis techniques. However, traditional NNs, which are generally trained by back-propagation algorithms, are likely to be trapped in local optimum. Therefore, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is introduced to train the NNs. The resulting PSO-NNs are employed to distinguish among four travel modes (walk, bike, bus, and car) with GPS positioning data collected through a smartphone-based travel survey. As a result, 95.81% of samples are correctly flagged for the training set, while 94.44% are correctly identified for the test set. Results from this study indicate that smartphone-based travel surveys provide an opportunity to supplement traditional travel surveys. View Full-Text
Keywords: global positioning system; neural networks; particle swarm optimization; travel mode global positioning system; neural networks; particle swarm optimization; travel mode

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Xiao, G.; Juan, Z.; Gao, J. Travel Mode Detection Based on Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization. Information 2015, 6, 522-535.

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