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Information, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2012), Pages 546-831

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Information and Energy/Matter
Information 2012, 3(4), 751-755; doi:10.3390/info3040751
Received: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 21 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (62 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
What can we hope for from studies of information related to energy/matter (as it appears for us in space/time)? Information is a concept known for its ambiguity in both common, everyday use and in its specific technical applications throughout different fields of research
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What can we hope for from studies of information related to energy/matter (as it appears for us in space/time)? Information is a concept known for its ambiguity in both common, everyday use and in its specific technical applications throughout different fields of research and technology. However, most people are unaware that matter/energy today is also a concept surrounded by a disquieting uncertainty. What for Democritus were building blocks of the whole universe appear today to constitute only 4% of its observed content. (NASA 2012) [1] The rest is labeled “dark matter” (conjectured to explain gravitational effects otherwise unaccounted for) and “dark energy” (introduced to account for the expansion of the universe). We do not know what “dark matter” and “dark energy” actually are. This indicates that our present understanding of the structure of the physical world needs re-examination. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Energy/Matter)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle A Toy Model for Torsorial Nature of Representations
Information 2012, 3(4), 546-566; doi:10.3390/info3040546
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 21 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
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Abstract
This paper presents a toy model for the representation related phenomena. It is the representation that is always referred to. The represented thing in itself is indeterminate existence at a fundamental level of understanding. In order to capture such property of representation, this
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This paper presents a toy model for the representation related phenomena. It is the representation that is always referred to. The represented thing in itself is indeterminate existence at a fundamental level of understanding. In order to capture such property of representation, this paper provides a toy model using an algebraic structure: torsor. The toy model captures this baselessness of representation naturally, and can be used to describe various phenomena of representations. Adopting the torsor and focusing on the two-sidedness and the closure property of representation enables the toy model to express some consistency of representations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Information Physics—Towards a New Conception of Physical Reality
Information 2012, 3(4), 567-594; doi:10.3390/info3040567
Received: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 26 September 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of information plays a fundamental role in our everyday experience, but is conspicuously absent in framework of classical physics. Over the last century, quantum theory and a series of other developments in physics and related subjects have brought the concept of
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The concept of information plays a fundamental role in our everyday experience, but is conspicuously absent in framework of classical physics. Over the last century, quantum theory and a series of other developments in physics and related subjects have brought the concept of information and the interface between an agent and the physical world into increasing prominence. As a result, over the last few decades, there has arisen a growing belief amongst many physicists that the concept of information may have a critical role to play in our understanding of the workings of the physical world, both in more deeply understanding existing physical theories and in formulating of new theories. In this paper, I describe the origin of the informational view of physics, illustrate some of the work inspired by this view, and give some indication of its implications for the development of a new conception of physical reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Energy/Matter)
Open AccessArticle Information and the Regulation of a Lower Hierarchical Level by a Higher One
Information 2012, 3(4), 595-600; doi:10.3390/info3040595
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (37 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper I consider the usefulness of the compositional hierarchy model in understanding the information flows involved in group behaviors in animals. I propose that short-term memory can function to transduce information across scale, thereby connecting different modes of information and mediating
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In this paper I consider the usefulness of the compositional hierarchy model in understanding the information flows involved in group behaviors in animals. I propose that short-term memory can function to transduce information across scale, thereby connecting different modes of information and mediating coherent group motions. This transduction I propose to be mediated by the “sign” as understood in Peircean semiotics, generating the meaning of the information for the social animal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information: Its Different Modes and Its Relation to Meaning)
Open AccessArticle Fröhlich Condensate: Emergence of Synergetic Dissipative Structures in Information Processing Biological and Condensed Matter Systems
Information 2012, 3(4), 601-620; doi:10.3390/info3040601
Received: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
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Abstract
We consider the case of a peculiar complex behavior in open boson systems sufficiently away from equilibrium, having relevance in the functioning of information-processing biological and condensed matter systems. This is the so-called Fröhlich–Bose–Einstein condensation, a self-organizing-synergetic dissipative structure, a phenomenon apparently working
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We consider the case of a peculiar complex behavior in open boson systems sufficiently away from equilibrium, having relevance in the functioning of information-processing biological and condensed matter systems. This is the so-called Fröhlich–Bose–Einstein condensation, a self-organizing-synergetic dissipative structure, a phenomenon apparently working in biological processes and present in several cases of systems of boson-like quasi-particles in condensed inorganic matter. Emphasis is centered on the quantum-mechanical-statistical irreversible thermodynamics of these open systems, and the informational characteristics of the phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain like Computing, Communication and Machines)
Open AccessArticle Design Epistemology
Information 2012, 3(4), 621-634; doi:10.3390/info3040621
Received: 6 September 2012 / Revised: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 25 September 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
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Abstract
The liberation from the view that only one way of making sense of experience is legitimate (the one that “corresponds to reality”), which follows from the results of 20th century science and philosophy, puts us into a position to consciously choose and assign
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The liberation from the view that only one way of making sense of experience is legitimate (the one that “corresponds to reality”), which follows from the results of 20th century science and philosophy, puts us into a position to consciously choose and assign a purpose to the creation of meaning; and based on that choice, to develop completely new modes of information, to suit each chosen purpose. We present an instance of this approach, where information and knowledge work are considered as key societal systemic components, and then designed as it may best suit the various functions that pertain to this role, notably the function of illuminating the way to all other systemic self-organization. Design epistemology provides an academic foundation for this approach; the Knowledge Federation community implements it in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information: Its Different Modes and Its Relation to Meaning)
Open AccessArticle When Information Conveys Meaning
Information 2012, 3(4), 635-643; doi:10.3390/info3040635
Received: 22 June 2012 / Revised: 19 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
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Abstract
While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible,
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While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information: Its Different Modes and Its Relation to Meaning)
Open AccessArticle Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe
Information 2012, 3(4), 644-660; doi:10.3390/info3040644
Received: 26 September 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed
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Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation process. These modelsdemonstrate the valuableness of the extensional view and are expected to enhance theunderstanding of the extensional aspects of fundamentals of information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Energy/Matter)
Open AccessArticle Enhancing the Search in MOLAP Sparse Data
Information 2012, 3(4), 661-675; doi:10.3390/info3040661
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
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Abstract
Multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP) systems deal well with dense data than relational ones (ROLAP). In the existence of sparse data, MOLAP systems become memory consuming, which may limit and slow down data processing tasks. Many compression techniques have been proposed to deal
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Multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP) systems deal well with dense data than relational ones (ROLAP). In the existence of sparse data, MOLAP systems become memory consuming, which may limit and slow down data processing tasks. Many compression techniques have been proposed to deal with the sparsity of data in MOLAP systems. One of these techniques is the bitmap compression, which allows a significant reduction of the memory space used for data processing. In this article, we propose an extension to the bitmap compression technique by storing the compressed data as bits into multiple efficient data structures based on a new indexing strategy instead of the linear structure. Compared with the classical bitmap, the proposed enhancement not only allows space reduction but also reduces the search time through the compressed data. We present some algorithms that allow maintaining and searching within the compressed structure without the need for decompression. We demonstrate that the complexity of the proposed algorithms varies from logarithmic to constant, compared with the linear complexity of the classical bitmap technique. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Logical Dynamics of Information; Deacon’s “Incomplete Nature
Information 2012, 3(4), 676-714; doi:10.3390/info3040676
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In his Incomplete Nature, Deacon extends a thermodynamic concept of energy to yield a description of complex processes in which absence plays a critical role in their emergence and evolution. Starting from a quantum-mechanical picture of energy as an energy-matter duality, the
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In his Incomplete Nature, Deacon extends a thermodynamic concept of energy to yield a description of complex processes in which absence plays a critical role in their emergence and evolution. Starting from a quantum-mechanical picture of energy as an energy-matter duality, the critical role of potential as well as actual properties of processes is also described in the new extension of logic to real phenomena, Logic in Reality (LIR), which I have proposed. Deacon shows how an interactive operation of both Shannon entropy and Boltzmann entropy must be taken into account in information. Here, I demonstrate the complementarity of our two approaches to what is not, or not fully, present for an understanding of the dynamics of complex phenomena, especially, of intentionality, information and meaning. Deacon shows that the hallmark of information is its absent content, and LIR shows that presence (actuality) and absence (potentiality) in such processes are related dynamically. Deacon’s approach and LIR ground and extend Logan’s concepts of biotic information and the relativity of information vs. meaning. Their conjunction constitutes a new conceptual structure for exploring the relationship of information to materiality, that is, to the matter-energy that constitutes it as its carrier and/or substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information: Its Different Modes and Its Relation to Meaning)
Open AccessArticle Angeletics and Logic in Reality
Information 2012, 3(4), 715-738; doi:10.3390/info3040715
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rafael Capurro has defined Angeletics (or messaging theory—John Holgate’s preferred term) as the study of messages and messaging and proposed its paradigmatic role in 21st century science and society. As stated in Messages and Messengers. Angeletics as an Approach to the Phenomenology of
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Rafael Capurro has defined Angeletics (or messaging theory—John Holgate’s preferred term) as the study of messages and messaging and proposed its paradigmatic role in 21st century science and society. As stated in Messages and Messengers. Angeletics as an Approach to the Phenomenology of Communication, edited by Capurro and Holgate, the objective of Angeletics is to further both a philosophical and a hermeneutical understanding of this phenomenon. My paper is directed at key issues outlined in the reference document by several authors that involve the physical grounding and evolution of messaging and information processes. My approach is to apply my recent extension of logic to complex real systems, processes and concepts, including information, messages and their interaction (Logic in Reality, LIR). LIR supports the grounding of Angeletics in reality and emphasizes the congruence between informational issues in science and in philosophy, as in Capurro’s distinction between an “angeletic philosophy” and “philosophic Angeletics”. From this perspective, LIR can act as a framework for the debate about the nature and function of messaging and information theory and their relevance for a more ethical information society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Angeletics / Messaging Theory)
Open AccessArticle Information Theory and Computational Thermodynamics: Lessons for Biology from Physics
Information 2012, 3(4), 739-750; doi:10.3390/info3040739
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 17 November 2012 / Accepted: 19 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We survey a few aspects of the thermodynamics of computation, connecting information, thermodynamics, computability and physics. We suggest some lines of research into how information theory and computational thermodynamics can help us arrive at a better understanding of biological processes. We argue that
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We survey a few aspects of the thermodynamics of computation, connecting information, thermodynamics, computability and physics. We suggest some lines of research into how information theory and computational thermodynamics can help us arrive at a better understanding of biological processes. We argue that while a similar connection between information theory and evolutionary biology seems to be growing stronger and stronger, biologists tend to use information simply as a metaphor. While biologists have for the most part been influenced and inspired by information theory as developed by Claude Shannon, we think the introduction of algorithmic complexity into biology will turn out to be a much deeper and more fruitful cross-pollination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Energy/Matter)
Open AccessArticle Quaternionic Multilayer Perceptron with Local Analyticity
Information 2012, 3(4), 756-770; doi:10.3390/info3040756
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multi-layered perceptron type neural network is presented and analyzed in this paper. All neuronal parameters such as input, output, action potential and connection weight are encoded by quaternions, which are a class of hypercomplex number system. Local analytic condition is imposed on
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A multi-layered perceptron type neural network is presented and analyzed in this paper. All neuronal parameters such as input, output, action potential and connection weight are encoded by quaternions, which are a class of hypercomplex number system. Local analytic condition is imposed on the activation function in updating neurons’ states in order to construct learning algorithm for this network. An error back-propagation algorithm is introduced for modifying the connection weights of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain like Computing, Communication and Machines)
Open AccessArticle A General Overview of Scientific Production in China, Japan and Korea of the Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Process
Information 2012, 3(4), 771-789; doi:10.3390/info3040771
Received: 21 August 2012 / Revised: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 29 November 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In today’s economy, one of the most important national indicators of economic growth performance is the country’s ability to produce new technology—and use it responsibly and efficiently—for environmental protection or energy conservation, production and consumption in agreement with international standards. The purpose of
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In today’s economy, one of the most important national indicators of economic growth performance is the country’s ability to produce new technology—and use it responsibly and efficiently—for environmental protection or energy conservation, production and consumption in agreement with international standards. The purpose of this study is to identify the Research and Development (R&D) capability in the area of environmentally friendly technologies in China, Japan and Korea over the last twenty years. As the field is very wide, Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction technologies were taken as a case study for the purpose of this article. During 1990–2011 a total of 788 papers in the field of WGS technologies were published by scientists in China, Japan and Korea. China was the top producing country with 394 papers (50%) followed by Japan with 250 papers (32%), and Korea with 144 papers (18%). The growth of the literature in the field was found to be exponential in nature for China. The R&D capabilities were found to correlate directly with the Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD), Researchers in Full-time equivalents (FTE), and other economic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communications Technology)
Open AccessArticle On the Origin of Metadata
Information 2012, 3(4), 790-808; doi:10.3390/info3040790
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
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Abstract
Metadata has been around and has evolved for centuries, albeit not recognized as such. Medieval manuscripts typically had illuminations at the start of each chapter, being both a kind of signature for the author writing the script and a pictorial chapter anchor for
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Metadata has been around and has evolved for centuries, albeit not recognized as such. Medieval manuscripts typically had illuminations at the start of each chapter, being both a kind of signature for the author writing the script and a pictorial chapter anchor for the illiterates at the time. Nowadays, there is so much fragmented information on the Internet that users sometimes fail to distinguish the real facts from some bended truth, let alone being able to interconnect different facts. Here, the metadata can both act as noise-reductors for detailed recommendations to the end-users, as it can be the catalyst to interconnect related information. Over time, metadata thus not only has had different modes of information, but furthermore, metadata’s relation of information to meaning, i.e., “semantics”, evolved. Darwin’s evolutionary propositions, from “species have an unlimited reproductive capacity”, over “natural selection”, to “the cooperation of mutations leads to adaptation to the environment” show remarkable parallels to both metadata’s different modes of information and to its relation of information to meaning over time. In this paper, we will show that the evolution of the use of (meta)data can be mapped to Darwin’s nine evolutionary propositions. As mankind and its behavior are products of an evolutionary process, the evolutionary process of metadata with its different modes of information is on the verge of a new-semantic-era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information: Its Different Modes and Its Relation to Meaning)
Open AccessArticle Implementation of Classical Communication in a Quantum World
Information 2012, 3(4), 809-831; doi:10.3390/info3040809
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Observations of quantum systems carried out by finite observers who subsequently communicate their results using classical data structures can be described as “local operations, classical communication” (LOCC) observations. The implementation of LOCC observations by the Hamiltonian dynamics prescribed by minimal quantum mechanics is
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Observations of quantum systems carried out by finite observers who subsequently communicate their results using classical data structures can be described as “local operations, classical communication” (LOCC) observations. The implementation of LOCC observations by the Hamiltonian dynamics prescribed by minimal quantum mechanics is investigated. It is shown that LOCC observations cannot be described using decoherence considerations alone, but rather require the a priori stipulation of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM) about which communicating observers agree. It is also shown that the transfer of classical information from system to observer can be described in terms of system-observer entanglement, raising the possibility that an apparatus implementing an appropriate POVM can reveal the entangled system-observer states that implement LOCC observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)

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